Thank you for visiting the development version of the Manual for Smart Streets. This site, effectively a Beta version, is designed to foster engagement and encourage feedback on the Manual for Smart Streets.
Smart Streets are a complex and fast-developing field and we don’t claim to have all the knowledge and insight needed to develop the manual. By sharing and consulting through this process, we hope that we can work together to build a meaningful and useful set of guidance.
The initial process will consist of information being published on this site, and we welcome your feedback and comments through our online survey.
We will also be carrying out active engagement and review. The material will then continue to be updated over the coming months with the intention that it will become a fully developed product early in 2022.
Thank you again for visiting the site, for engaging with the material and for sharing your feedback. We look forward to hearing from you.
Smart streets are when the management, operation and maintenance of streets and highways are enhanced through the application of technology. This term...
Smart streets are when the management, operation and maintenance of streets and highways are enhanced through the application of technology. This term is further explained and expanded on in the following sections.
Smart Streets are supported by digital and connected services that have become widespread, improving user experiences and delivering efficiencies. The...
Smart Streets are supported by digital and connected services that have become widespread, improving user experiences and delivering efficiencies. The travelling public increasingly uses smartphones to support them through their journeys and as the devices in vehicles proliferate, connected vehicles are an integral part of the ecosystem and traffic management systems have to develop to engage with them.
An example is shown in the diagrams below comparing traditional and smart traffic management. The introduction of co-operative communication between vehicles, user devices, and transport infrastructure allows traffic management systems to provide a better more seamless user experience, operating more efficiently with access to better data, and less reliance on physical infrastructure.
However, Smart Streets are not limited to the functions of traffic management, this manual covers the application of smart technology across a wide range of transport functions and services undertaken by authorities.
The Manual for Smart Streets, this Manual, is being developed to provide guidance to authorities for the delivery of the technology-driven services th...
The Manual for Smart Streets, this Manual, is being developed to provide guidance to authorities for the delivery of the technology-driven services that enable traffic management in our increasingly digital world.
We have structured this manual to consist of a generic process in ‘Service Delivery Lifecycle’ and repositories of knowledge in Smart Streets Use ...
We have structured this manual to consist of a generic process in ‘Service Delivery Lifecycle’ and repositories of knowledge in Smart Streets Use Cases.
The table below describes the key terms and abbreviations applied throughout the Manual for Smart Streets.
Further terms may be defined in specific use-case.
|Authority||Any authority organisation with an interest in management of traffic and street services who are the primary target audience of this Manual for Smart Streets. This includes, but is not limited to Local, Regional or National authorities involved in highway maintenance, engineering works on the highway, or management of traffic services such as public transport or traffic management and control infrastructure. For example, this includes various 'Highway authorities' as defined in part 1 of the Highways Act 1980 or organisations exercising functions of 'the network management authority' as defined in the Traffic Management Act 2004.|
|C-V2X||Cellular-V2X||A standard being developed by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) that is intended to deliver the features of WiFi based V2X standards on cellular networks. Note that the Car-2-Car consortium apply a different meaning to the C-V2X and use the term LTE V2X when referring to cellular-V2X.||https://www.3gpp.org/v2x|
|CCTV||Closed Circuit Circuit Television||The use of video cameras to transmit surveillance data to specific places.||https://www.3gpp.org/v2x|
|CV||Connected Vehicle||Any vehicle that can communicate with other vehicles or infrastructure. For example, the vehicle could be a car, truck, cycle or motorcycle; the transmission could be cellular data, radio, or dedicated short range communications. The information could be presented to the vehicle occupants on a smartphone or integrated vehicle display screen; alternatively, it could be provided to the vehicle systems rather than the driver.|
|CVD||Connected Vehicle Data||An umbrella term for any data that is shared between vehicles or with infrastructure. This includes data exchanges using V2X, C-V2X, and communications with control centres, or third-party systems using cellular data.|
|C-ITS||Co-operative Intelligent Transport||Refers to transport systems, where the cooperation between two or more ITS sub-systems (personal, vehicle, roadside and central) enables and provides an ITS service that offers better quality and an enhanced service level, compared to the same ITS service provided by only one of the ITS sub-systems.|
|DRT||Demand Responsive Transport||Demand responsive transport services are an alternative to traditional fixed route services and can take different forms, but broadly they try to reconcile the convenience and flexibility offered by private vehicles or taxis with the efficiency and lower cost and environmental impact of mass public transit. These services may be operated and funded by public bodies, or private companies, or a combination thereof. However DRT is often challenging to run on a commercial, non-subsidised basis.|
|Digitalisation||Digitalisation is the process adopting use of digital information and technologies to improve business processes. This may involve Digitisation, or Digital transformation. Digitisation is the conversion of non-digital information into a digital format. For example the conversion of maps from physical paper records to digital records. Digital transformation is the adoption of digital technology to improve business processes. For example adopting cashless payment for parking and public transport services.|
|EV||Electric Vehicle||A vehicle that uses one or more electric motors for propulsion.|
|e-mobility||Electromobility||The use of partial or full electric propulsion to drive a wide range of vehicles including cars, bicycles, motorcycles, buses and trucks.|
|5G||Fifth Generation (cellular network)||The fifth generation technology standard for broadband cellular networks which began worldwide deployment in 2019 as the planned successor to the existing 4G networks that provide connectivity between most 'cellular' devices. The rollout of 5G may help to facilitate smart street use-cases through the expected improvements to communication speed, latency, reliability and range that 5G is expected to deliver along with development of communications standards including developed support for Internet of Things (IoT) and private networking capabilities (see also C-V2X).|
|GNSS||Global Navigation Satellite System||The general term for satellite navigation systems that provide geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. Operational GNSS systems include GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou.|
|ITS||Intelligent Transport Systems||Systems in which information and communication technologies are applied in the field of road transport, including infrastructure, vehicles and users, and in traffic management and mobility management, as well as for interfaces with other modes of transport.|
|IoT||Internet of Things||The internet of things, refers to a system computing devices that are connected to exchange data with other devices and systems over the Internet.|
|ITS-G5||A family of standards developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to implement V2X services. ITS-G5 is an alternative to the WAVE/DSRC system defined by IEEE 1609 and SAE J2735. Both systems use the same 5.9Ghz frequency band physical wireless access layer defined in IEEE 802.11p. However, only ITS-G5 is designed to alleviate congestion when used in conjunction with the 5.8Ghz DSRC system based on EN 12253 standard which is already in use in parts of Europe.|
|MOVA||Microprocessor Optimised Vehicle Actuation||A traffic signal control system that implements a strategy for optimising standalone traffic signals. Developed by the UK in the 1980s.|
|MaaS||Mobility as a Service||MaaS is a service which allows users to plan, book and pay for multi-modal journeys in a seamless and integrated planning and payment ecosystem.|
|NAP||National Access Point||Can take various forms, such as a database, data warehouse, data marketplace, repository, and register, web portal or similar depending on the type of data concerned and provide discovery services, making it easier to fuse, crunch or analyse the requested data sets.|
|PEV||Plug-in Electric Vehicle||Any road vehicle that can be recharged from an external source of electricity.|
|Smart City||The smart city concept is the integration of information of communications technologies into cities to optimize the efficiency of city operations, services and provide connectivity to citizens.|
|SCOOT||Split Cycle Offset Optimisation Technique||An adaptive urban traffic signal control system developed by the UK in the 1980s.|
|TTF||Transport Technology Forum||An organisation that exists to give leadership, direction and support and to stimulate investment in innovation and technology solutions. The Transport Technology Forum receives funding from the Department for Transport and InnovateUK to help achieve change and technological innovation with collaborating organisations.|
|UTMC||Urban Traffic Management and Control||An open standards initiative that provides a framework of standards intended to provide a cost effective and flexible means to manage transport in urban areas. These facilitate the integration of transport systems to be interoperable, communicate and share information with each other. This makes information available as a management tool and as a means of influencing traveller behaviour.|
|V2X||Vehicle to Everything||The data exchange from a vehicle to entities in its surroundings using wireless technology that provides low latency and reliable data exchanges. V2X is an umbrella term incorporating several more specific types of vehicular communication including but not limited to: V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure), V2N (vehicle-to-network), and V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle). The IEEE 802.11p standard defines the physical layer for wireless access in vehicular environments (WAVE) which is intended to facilitate V2X communication over WiFi.|
|Wireless communication||The transfer of information between two or more points without the using of an electrical conductor as a medium to perform the transfer. Wireless communication is most commonly performed using radio waves, for example using Wi-Fi, or cellular standards. However, wireless communication may alternatively be achieved by sound or alternative electromagnetic wireless technologies such as light, magnetic, or electric fields.|
|Wi-Fi||Wireless Fidelity||A family of wireless network protocols and specifications, based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards|
The implementation of a Smart Street system will follow a lifecycle. Each stage of the lifecycle will present different challenges that need to be overcome to achieve success. The intention of this manual is to provide guidance to help authorities overcome these challenges. This section describes an example of this lifecycle which is then used to discuss how this manual may be used as part of the successful delivery of Smart Street system.
New technology solutions have been introduced on the market in recent times, which makes more tools available for implementing traffic management strategy. However, this also means the tools and services maybe increasingly interlinked. Many efficiency and quality gains may be achieved through introducing digitalised connected operations rather than depending on human interaction to move data from one system to another.
A clear strategy for operational delivery is required, which should document what services are required to deliver the objectives and how they are going used. It should set out how the services will be embedded into day-to-day operations to deliver policy. The strategy can then provide the vision and direction for the procurement of the different services that will make up the overall system. It will also help users think about issues such as the staffing, training and management that will be required to deliver the services. A useful approach is to consider the development of a “concept of operations” and we will discuss this further in later releases.
We’ve assumed an idealised lifecycle for a Smart Street system consisting of 10 steps as illustrated in the adjacent diagram. The actual lifecycle steps followed by a specific organisations or projects will vary, however, the intention of this section is to set out a general example to illustrate how this manual may be applied as part of the delivery process.
This content is therefore not intended to replace any existing resources that Authorities may refer to as part of procurement, which may include:
The information below provides a description of each lifecycle stage and discusses aspects that will need consideration at each of these stages.
The content of the use cases in this manual are intended to help authorities progress through these steps, as described in the ‘Smart Streets Use Case Overview’
We will be interested in your views on which stages are most challenging and where additional information will be particularly helpful.
Description of lifecycle stage – This first stage is initiated by the problem owner based on a defined need for procuring a new system, to satis...
This first stage is initiated by the problem owner based on a defined need for procuring a new system, to satisfy specific objectives.
Based on this this initial problem definition the scope and high-level requirements will be defined. At this stage, similar authorities’ case studies can help the problem owner identify if other authorities are faced with the same problem, and how they tried to address it. In particular, how they scoped it and defined their high-level requirements.
During this stage, authorities should consider developing an initial problem definition, defining the scope and the high-level requirements. This could include:
Description of lifecycle stage – The objective of this stage is to analyse the market and understand the type of organisations able to fulfil th...
The objective of this stage is to analyse the market and understand the type of organisations able to fulfil the defined high-level requirements. There is likely to be a range of solutions to the defined problem or no existing solutions in the market. Therefore, Stage 2 could be done through a combination of research and/or pre-procurement market tests and engagement.
Market testing activities must be conducted in accordance with procurement regulations and organisational policies. These often allow greater scope of market engagement during pre-procurement planning stage, than after initiation of formal procurement process; hence it is important to plan and conduct market testing accordingly and set out the approach in the procurement strategy.
There may be a range of solutions with different characteristics and levels of maturity. Therefore, it is important to:
Description of lifecycle stage – The objective of this stage is to ensure that the proposed system aligns with existing strategy goals and to ma...
The objective of this stage is to ensure that the proposed system aligns with existing strategy goals and to maximise the potential of the proposed system deliver improvements and/or develop strategies.
Technology-driven solutions or services often have the potential to deliver transformative changes. It is therefore important to identify the impact of the proposals on the wider objectives of a specific department or the authority as a whole. This includes an understanding of the impact external organisation(s), such as suppliers, and internal resources has on the overall process.
Description of lifecycle stage – The functional requirements and detailed requirements need developing at this stage for the solution to be proc...
The functional requirements and detailed requirements need developing at this stage for the solution to be procured. The detailed requirements should clearly, accurately, and completely describe in detail what the authority wants the successful bidder to supply. This stage is usually conducted in collaboration between the problem owner and the authority’s procurement team.
In the case of technology-driven procurement exercises, the requirements should take into consideration the industry standards being utilised in devising the solution, again using the appropriate use case as guidance on the key standards to apply. Deploying standardised technologies bring a wide range of benefits including:
A. Economies of scale which potentially drives down costs;
B. Interoperability at the technology system/components levels and ease of interchangeability of products;
C. Mitigation against vendor lock-in; and
D. Interoperability at the data level.
We intend to develop this manual over time to incorporate knowledge and lessons learnt from previous authority projects. The use cases will help authorities understand the standards adopted in relevant solutions procured by other authorities and draw upon their body of knowledge. This will also help the authority’s procurement team to ensure a common approach throughout the authority in relation to aspects such as data standards and formats, interoperability with existing systems and services, and issues related to vendor lock-in.
Description of lifecycle stage – Procurement is the process of purchasing goods or services. There are many different routes by which the design...
Procurement is the process of purchasing goods or services. There are many different routes by which the design and implementation of a system can be procured, and there are many sources of guidance as well as specialists within the authority. The selected route should follow a strategy which fits the long-term objectives of the authority’s business plan.
Description of lifecycle stage – The details of the approach at this stage will depend on the agreed procurement strategy. Conducting a Request ...
The details of the approach at this stage will depend on the agreed procurement strategy.
Conducting a Request for Information (RFI) at this stage will bring insights into suppliers’ size, capabilities, financials, strengths and weaknesses before assessing whether they should be included in the tender process. This will help understand the potential suppliers and inform the approach on invitation to participate in the tender process. Issuing the Invitation to Tender (ITT) is the subsequent step where suppliers submit their response to the defined requirements.
Description of lifecycle stage – Once the tenders are submitted, bids must be evaluated and validated to select the preferred supplier. A struct...
Once the tenders are submitted, bids must be evaluated and validated to select the preferred supplier. A structured, disciplined and transparent approach is required, with collaboration between the procurement and technical teams. Most evaluations explore price comparisons alongside technical capability, capacity, quality of service and financial health.
An assessment approach should identify the tender that best meets the authority’s needs and offers the best value for money over the life of the project. Authorities should consider the following in their assessment process:
Description of lifecycle stage – Once the supplier is selected, a contract is awarded which allows both parties to fully understand their obliga...
Once the supplier is selected, a contract is awarded which allows both parties to fully understand their obligations and key success criteria as part of the agreement. This forms the foundation to manage the contract and relationship effectively. The agreed terms and conditions help to minimise contractual risks and exposure.
This stage will be undertaken working in close cooperation with the procurement and legal team.
The approach needs to address the specific requirements of the authority’s governance processes, and these should be identified in the procurement strategy.
Description of lifecycle stage – Once the contract and terms are agreed, the implementation and operation stage commences. As part of this stage...
Once the contract and terms are agreed, the implementation and operation stage commences. As part of this stage, there should be periodic reviews of performance against Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) set out in the contract along with discussions on how the relationship is working and resolve any conflicts that may have arisen. At this stage discussions and plans can be set for continuous improvement. Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) is an important part of this stage as it helps to create the right relationship and environment in which to work on new developments and evaluate the option of streamlining processes.
Description of lifecycle stage – The prior steps of the lifecycle need to define and plan for the lifespan of the system and its decommissioning...
The prior steps of the lifecycle need to define and plan for the lifespan of the system and its decommissioning to:
The Manual for Smart Streets aims to provide practical guidance for authorities and as the manual develops it will be enhanced with pointers, links and case studies to provide further support. We intend to regularly update this manual so that it continues to provide up-to-date guidance despite the rapidly developing technological landscape it covers. The approach to issuing and highlighting updates will be developed and published over the coming months.
We have structured this manual to support the ‘Service Delivery Lifecycle’, set out in in the Introduction, and repositories of knowledge in Smart Streets Use Cases, as introduced in Purpose of the Manual, above.
The ‘Service Delivery Lifecycle’ outlines the whole lifecycle of smart street technology, from conception, through procurement, its operational life and ending with decommissioning. The ‘Smart Streets Use Cases’ are accordingly structured to follow this lifecycle.
The use cases acknowledge that the rollout of technology starts with formation of strategies and business cases, before development of detailed designs. This process is supported by providing logic-maps in the Use Case. These logic maps provide a high level illustration of the functions that may be delivered from the use case and how these map to the set of DfT green book appraisal impacts.
The approach taken in the development of this manual is to think of traffic management services as being delivered through interlinked systems, a system of systems approach to help users conceptualise the whole service. However, the overall system-of-systems is large and complex, and each authority will have differences in their:
It is therefore impractical for this manual to define detailed solutions for each use-case. This would be overly prescriptive and would not allow for the flexibility and diversity of system design that authorities require to implement a system that meets their needs effectively and takes advantage of the latest developments in the market.
The approach taken is to illustrate a complete journey through a service by the end user, such as a member of the public, interacting with the system, providing information about the strategies that can be supported and the benefits as well as the details about technologies. Each Use Case provides an introduction to the subject and will provide information to support more detailed investigation and research.
The use cases by necessity do not provide definitive detailed designs. Rather their intention is to provide a meaningful and accessible overview to facilitate the development of business case which enables specialised resources to be engaged and undertake the detailed design of the system.
However, case studies may be provided in the appendix of the manual to provide more specific and detailed exemplar guidance. If you’re a practitioner who has knowledge or capability that will support others in their implementations then please do engage with us. We are keen to share your experience by publishing this as a case study within the manual.
The Use Cases have been produced by considering key transport functions and the interactions with the users of that function. The target user is likel...
The Use Cases have been produced by considering key transport functions and the interactions with the users of that function. The target user is likely to the be the traveller, using the services. However, whilst some interfaces to the traveller may be delivered directly, for example by setting a traffic signal to red, increasingly services will be delivered by providing data through interfaces to other service providers such as navigation service providers.
Historically, traffic management has focussed on providing relatively direct control of road users via traffic signals and signs. However, the trend is shifting to an increased strategic influence of road user behaviour via connected services. This shift provides significant opportunities to achieve various policy objectives, however, implementing these connected services requires the adoption of a connected systems approach by authorities.
We have identified a set of 12 use cases that we intend to provide in the manual. The titles and description of the use cases are outlined in the documents below.
We are engaging and learning in parallel with developing the content of the manual, the structure and scope of the use cases may change based on your feedback as we develop the manual.
A draft version of the first two use cases, Air Quality Management, and Transport Payment are published on this beta site. These are intended to show you the currently intended structure, format, and content of a use case and facilitate your feedback on how we may develop this further in subsequent publications of the manual.
Please note that that the purpose of the manual is to provide informative guidance for authorities to assist the development and implementation of Smart Street services. The manual is not intended to be prescriptive or define any mandatory compliance requirements.
The air quality management use case is comprised of information services that support the monitoring and management of air quality. This can be achieved through air quality enforcement areas or through changes to traffic management and information policies.VIEW PDF
The transport payment use case is comprised of services to support authorities in implementation and running of the integrated ticketing and other transport services payment systems in the city, region, cross region or nationally.VIEW PDF
The further ten use cases and intended to be published as the manual is developed.
The asset management use case is comprised of smart asset management utilising connected data and co-ordinated applications.
The electrical vehicle (EV) charging information use case is comprised of information and management services that support the accessibility and operation of EV charging facilities.
The parking management use case is comprised of information services to support drivers in finding and paying for suitable parking and management to support the authority in maintaining the parking service. It also incorporates the accessibility and operation of EV charging facilities.
The parking transport use case is comprised of information service to enable customers to discover, pay and use a DRT service, and provide the authority with key digital performance metrics.
Mobility as a Service, also known as MaaS, provides a platform for end-to-end customer travel experience that delivers multimodal transport choices in a seamless and integrated planning and payment ecosystem.
The traffic management use case is comprised of services for controlling, managing and delivering traffic management in a data and technology driven environment, where traffic management comprises the enforceable controls exercised by the road authorities.
The road user information use case is comprised of service to support road users with road travel information that is relevant, timely, reliable and easy to understand whilst supporting local transport policy incorporating connected in vehicle data.
The transport data management use case is comprised of services to support Local Authorities in collecting, harvesting, analysing, fusing, managing and making data open for all relevant users and service providers. This supports authorities to maximise the efficient and effective use of transport data. This includes the use of data from 3rd party services and probe vehicle data.
The signal control use case is comprised of the use of connected vehicle data to support/improve traffic signal control, for example including GLOSA services.
The vulnerable road users’ safety use case is comprised of services to improve safety for Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) including pedestrians and cyclists as well as motor-cyclists and persons with disabilities or reduced mobility and orientation. These services are considered to have a most significant impact on the various categories of VRUs which could include Human-Machine-Interface or safe integration of Nomadic Devices.
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